The goal of this blog is to show how crime has evolved throughout history.
Background Illustrations provided by: http://edison.rutgers.edu/
Dec. 31, 2011:
At least six people are killed by a gunman at a shopping centre in Espoo, Finland. 
The shooter, Ibrahim Shkupolli, allegedly shot his ex-girlfriend in her apartment after finding out she had a lover who worked at the mall. After killing her, he headed there. He entered a Prisma supermarket and began firing with a 9mm handgun, killing three men and one woman. 
Shkupolli walked into another shop after shooting the people and then disappeared, prompting a major manhunt. He was then found dead in an apartment in the city from a self-inflicted gunshot wound. 

Dec. 31, 2011:

At least six people are killed by a gunman at a shopping centre in Espoo, Finland. 

The shooter, Ibrahim Shkupolli, allegedly shot his ex-girlfriend in her apartment after finding out she had a lover who worked at the mall. After killing her, he headed there. He entered a Prisma supermarket and began firing with a 9mm handgun, killing three men and one woman. 

Shkupolli walked into another shop after shooting the people and then disappeared, prompting a major manhunt. He was then found dead in an apartment in the city from a self-inflicted gunshot wound. 

August 29, 1533:
Atahualpa, the 13th and final emperor of the Incas, is strangled at the hands of Francisco Pizarro’s Spanish conquistadors in what is now Cajamarca, Perú.
Atahualpa became emperor when he defeated his older half-brother Huáscar in a civil war caused by the death of his father, Huayna Capac. 
In January 1531, a Spanish expedition led by Pizarro landed on Puná Island off the coast of what’s now Ecuador. The mission’s intention was to conquer the Incas and claim their territory for Spain. The Spanish occupied Tumbes in what’s now Perú, where they heard about the civil war between Huáscar and Atahualpa. 
In 1532, reinforcements arrived from Spain, and Pizarro founded San Miguel de Piura, in what’s now northwestern Perú. They began marching on the Incas with 106 foot soldiers and 62 horsemen. Atahualpa sent an Incan noble to investigate, and he stayed for two days at the Spanish camp, assessing the army. He decided they were not a threat to Atahualpa’s 80,000 troops, so the emperor decided to invite the Spanish to Cajamarca to meet him, thinking he could capture them. Pizarro and his men arrived on Nov. 15, 1532.
Atahualpa’s army was camped just outside the city, while he was staying in a building close to its Konoj hot springs. When Pizarro arrived, most of the town was empty except a few hundred Acclas (virgins who were chosen to keep the sacred fires of Inti burning throughout the empire). Pizarro and his men set up in several buildings along the street’s main plaza, and he sent an embassy to the Inca. Twenty more horsemen were brought in as reinforcements in case the Incas attacked.
The Spanish invited Atahualpa to meet them, but they didn’t know he was preparing an ambush to trap them. They were trying to get Atahualpa to submit to their authority. 
The next day, 5,000 to 6,000 men accompanied Atahualpa to the city, where Spaniards lay in wait. Atahualpa then demanded the Dominican friar tell the Spaniards they must return everything they had taken from the Incas since they arrived. The friar tried to speak to him about Christianity and gave him his liturgical book. But Atahualpa threw it on the ground, and the Spanish calvary then came out of hiding and attacked the Incas. Many were killed, and others fled in panic. Atahualpa was taken captive.
Two months later, the Spanish realized they were outnumbered and decided to execute Atahualpa. They staged a mock trial and found him guilty of revolting against the Spanish, practicing idolatry, and murdering his brother. He was sentenced to die burning at the stake.
This horrified Atahualpa, since the Inca believed the soul would not go to the afterlife if its body was burned. The friar intervened and said if Atahualpa converted to Christianity, his sentence would be commuted. Atahualpa was baptized Juan Santos Atahualpa and was strangled with a garrotte.

August 29, 1533:

Atahualpa, the 13th and final emperor of the Incas, is strangled at the hands of Francisco Pizarro’s Spanish conquistadors in what is now Cajamarca, Perú.

Atahualpa became emperor when he defeated his older half-brother Huáscar in a civil war caused by the death of his father, Huayna Capac. 

In January 1531, a Spanish expedition led by Pizarro landed on Puná Island off the coast of what’s now Ecuador. The mission’s intention was to conquer the Incas and claim their territory for Spain. The Spanish occupied Tumbes in what’s now Perú, where they heard about the civil war between Huáscar and Atahualpa. 

In 1532, reinforcements arrived from Spain, and Pizarro founded San Miguel de Piura, in what’s now northwestern Perú. They began marching on the Incas with 106 foot soldiers and 62 horsemen. Atahualpa sent an Incan noble to investigate, and he stayed for two days at the Spanish camp, assessing the army. He decided they were not a threat to Atahualpa’s 80,000 troops, so the emperor decided to invite the Spanish to Cajamarca to meet him, thinking he could capture them. Pizarro and his men arrived on Nov. 15, 1532.

Atahualpa’s army was camped just outside the city, while he was staying in a building close to its Konoj hot springs. When Pizarro arrived, most of the town was empty except a few hundred Acclas (virgins who were chosen to keep the sacred fires of Inti burning throughout the empire). Pizarro and his men set up in several buildings along the street’s main plaza, and he sent an embassy to the Inca. Twenty more horsemen were brought in as reinforcements in case the Incas attacked.

The Spanish invited Atahualpa to meet them, but they didn’t know he was preparing an ambush to trap them. They were trying to get Atahualpa to submit to their authority. 

The next day, 5,000 to 6,000 men accompanied Atahualpa to the city, where Spaniards lay in wait. Atahualpa then demanded the Dominican friar tell the Spaniards they must return everything they had taken from the Incas since they arrived. The friar tried to speak to him about Christianity and gave him his liturgical book. But Atahualpa threw it on the ground, and the Spanish calvary then came out of hiding and attacked the Incas. Many were killed, and others fled in panic. Atahualpa was taken captive.

Two months later, the Spanish realized they were outnumbered and decided to execute Atahualpa. They staged a mock trial and found him guilty of revolting against the Spanish, practicing idolatry, and murdering his brother. He was sentenced to die burning at the stake.

This horrified Atahualpa, since the Inca believed the soul would not go to the afterlife if its body was burned. The friar intervened and said if Atahualpa converted to Christianity, his sentence would be commuted. Atahualpa was baptized Juan Santos Atahualpa and was strangled with a garrotte.

Aug. 5, 2012:
Wade Michael Page bursts into a Sikh temple in Oak Creek, Wisc., fatally shooting six people and wounding four others before committing suicide after being shot by police.
Page was a white supremacist and former U.S. Army veteran who had performed in several white power bands that were labelled as hate groups by the Southern Poverty Law Center. The FBI’s Joint Terrorism Task Force investigated the shooting, trying to see if there were ties to other white supremacist or racist groups, but there was no link to anyone else. 

U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder described the shooting as ‘an act of terrorism, an act of hatred, a hate crime.’

Aug. 5, 2012:

Wade Michael Page bursts into a Sikh temple in Oak Creek, Wisc., fatally shooting six people and wounding four others before committing suicide after being shot by police.

Page was a white supremacist and former U.S. Army veteran who had performed in several white power bands that were labelled as hate groups by the Southern Poverty Law Center. The FBI’s Joint Terrorism Task Force investigated the shooting, trying to see if there were ties to other white supremacist or racist groups, but there was no link to anyone else. 

U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder described the shooting as ‘an act of terrorism, an act of hatred, a hate crime.’

Aug. 4, 2006:
Sri Lankan government forces massacre 17 French INGO Action Against Hunger employees at Muttur. 
The Sri Lankan government denied responsibility, but the Sri Lankan Monitoring Mission suspect the Army was responsible. The incident has been described as a war crime by Action Against Hunger, the NGO for whom the victims worked. 

Under increasing international pressure, Sri Lankan president Mahinda Rajapakse announced an inquiry to look into 15 suspected violations, including the massacre.

Aug. 4, 2006:

Sri Lankan government forces massacre 17 French INGO Action Against Hunger employees at Muttur. 

The Sri Lankan government denied responsibility, but the Sri Lankan Monitoring Mission suspect the Army was responsible. The incident has been described as a war crime by Action Against Hunger, the NGO for whom the victims worked. 

Under increasing international pressure, Sri Lankan president Mahinda Rajapakse announced an inquiry to look into 15 suspected violations, including the massacre.

Aug. 3, 1913:
The Wheatland Hop Riot begins at the Durst Ranch in Wheatland, Calif.
Ralph H. Durst was one of the leading growers of hops in California’s Central Valley in the early 20th century. He was also the single largest employer of agricultural labour in the state, bringing hundreds of seasonal workers onto his estate to harvest hops every year. 
In 1913, he advertised for workers like usual, but the number of people needing jobs was greater than the demand. About 2,800 people applied for work in a space that only could serve 1,500 people, so he slashed pay rates and created abysmal living conditions. The facilities were ‘overflowing’ with human waste and covered in flies, and the drinking water was kept a mile away from the fields. 
Durst paid his workers $1 per 100 pounds of hops harvested. But he tricked them by cleaning the hops before weighing them, and allowing no workers to be present at the cleaning. Workers generally got about $1.50 a day for 12 hours work in heat that reached up to 44C or 110F. Workers on other farms were making about twice as much.
On July 29, 1913, workers decided to strike. On Aug. 1, about 30 workers affiliated with the Industrial Workers of the World began encouraging their co-workers to take action. 
Durst responded, saying he would improve the toilets, provide water in the fields and let one worker witness the hops cleaning. A strike was threatened if the workers’ other demands weren’t met. Durst responded by terminating everyone on the strike committee, but the workers refused to collect their pay and leave. Durst called the deputy sheriff and asked him to arrest the strike leader, but no arrest was made because there was no warrant. 
On Aug. 3, Durst went into town to get police to help put down the growing revolt on his farm. They arrived at 5pm to a mass meeting of pickers. They tried to arrest the strike leader, Richard Ford, but workers began intervening on his behalf. Police then fired a shotgun into the air to try and get the crowd to disperse. This didn’t work, and many members of the crowd jumped on the district attorney and deputy sheriff and began beating them. A riot ensued.
At the end, the deputy sheriff, one Puerto Rican hops picker and an English hops picker were dead, and one picker had lost an arm to a shotgun. 
Many workers fled the ranch after the riot, and police ended up arresting 100 workers. Those who were arrested were beaten and starved so police could get testimony to use against the strike leaders. 
A coroner’s inquest concluded the IWW strike leadership had caused the riot that led to the district attorney’s death, so arrest warrants were issued for Ford and his co-strike leader on charges of murder. They were eventually rounded up and held for trial. In jail, they were subjected to such incredible pressure that one worker killed himself, another attempted suicide, and another had to be committed to a mental hospital because he suffered a breakdown. 
The strike leaders were found guilty of second-degree murder after a day of deliberations, and received life sentences. 

The Wheatland Riot eventually led to better protection for agricultural workers in the state, including state inspection of labour camps. The two leaders remained behind bars for over a decade, but were eventually paroled. Ford, unfortunately, was immediately re-arrested and charged with murder. He was found not guilty. 

Aug. 3, 1913:

The Wheatland Hop Riot begins at the Durst Ranch in Wheatland, Calif.

Ralph H. Durst was one of the leading growers of hops in California’s Central Valley in the early 20th century. He was also the single largest employer of agricultural labour in the state, bringing hundreds of seasonal workers onto his estate to harvest hops every year. 

In 1913, he advertised for workers like usual, but the number of people needing jobs was greater than the demand. About 2,800 people applied for work in a space that only could serve 1,500 people, so he slashed pay rates and created abysmal living conditions. The facilities were ‘overflowing’ with human waste and covered in flies, and the drinking water was kept a mile away from the fields. 

Durst paid his workers $1 per 100 pounds of hops harvested. But he tricked them by cleaning the hops before weighing them, and allowing no workers to be present at the cleaning. Workers generally got about $1.50 a day for 12 hours work in heat that reached up to 44C or 110F. Workers on other farms were making about twice as much.

On July 29, 1913, workers decided to strike. On Aug. 1, about 30 workers affiliated with the Industrial Workers of the World began encouraging their co-workers to take action. 

Durst responded, saying he would improve the toilets, provide water in the fields and let one worker witness the hops cleaning. A strike was threatened if the workers’ other demands weren’t met. Durst responded by terminating everyone on the strike committee, but the workers refused to collect their pay and leave. Durst called the deputy sheriff and asked him to arrest the strike leader, but no arrest was made because there was no warrant. 

On Aug. 3, Durst went into town to get police to help put down the growing revolt on his farm. They arrived at 5pm to a mass meeting of pickers. They tried to arrest the strike leader, Richard Ford, but workers began intervening on his behalf. Police then fired a shotgun into the air to try and get the crowd to disperse. This didn’t work, and many members of the crowd jumped on the district attorney and deputy sheriff and began beating them. A riot ensued.

At the end, the deputy sheriff, one Puerto Rican hops picker and an English hops picker were dead, and one picker had lost an arm to a shotgun. 

Many workers fled the ranch after the riot, and police ended up arresting 100 workers. Those who were arrested were beaten and starved so police could get testimony to use against the strike leaders. 

A coroner’s inquest concluded the IWW strike leadership had caused the riot that led to the district attorney’s death, so arrest warrants were issued for Ford and his co-strike leader on charges of murder. They were eventually rounded up and held for trial. In jail, they were subjected to such incredible pressure that one worker killed himself, another attempted suicide, and another had to be committed to a mental hospital because he suffered a breakdown. 

The strike leaders were found guilty of second-degree murder after a day of deliberations, and received life sentences. 

The Wheatland Riot eventually led to better protection for agricultural workers in the state, including state inspection of labour camps. The two leaders remained behind bars for over a decade, but were eventually paroled. Ford, unfortunately, was immediately re-arrested and charged with murder. He was found not guilty. 

Aug. 2, 1989:

The Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka kills 64 ethnic Tamils in Valvettithurai. 

The massacre came after an attack on soldiers by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam while left six Indian soldiers dead and 10 injured. 

Indian soldiers originally claimed the civilians were caught in the crossfire, but journalists reported that they had been massacring civilians. 

Indians believe the incident came after a deliberate provocation by the LTTE. They think what the LTTE wanted was to trigger a response that would tarnish the Peace Keeping Force’s reputation. 

The massacre has since been called India’s My Lai. 

Aug. 1, 1966:
Engineering student and former U.S. Marine Charles Whitman kills 17 people and wounds 32 others in a shooting rampage around the Tower at the University of Texas Austin.
Prior to the shootings, Whitman had murdered his wife and mother. At 6:45am the day before, he typed out a suicide letter. He killed both his mother and wife by stabbing them through the heart on the morning of Aug. 1.
That morning, he rented a truck and bought a Universal M1 carbine, two magazines and eight boxes of ammo, saying he wanted to hunt hogs. He then bought more magazines, six boxes of ammo, and a gun cleaning solvent. He bought another gun, a 12-gauge semi-automatic shotgun, before returning home.
While at home, he sawed off the barrel of the 12-gauge, and took it, a Remington 700 6mm bolt-action hunting rifle, a .35 calibre pump rifle, a .30 calibre carbine, a 9mm Luger pistol, a Galesi-Brescia .25 calibre pistol and a Smith & Wesson M19 .357 Magnum revolver and 700 rounds of ammunition. He then changed into khaki overalls.
While at the University, Whitman knocked an employee out and then beat her to death with his rifle butt. Before he entered the observation deck, he fired his gun at a family, killing one of their sons, along with a 56-year-old woman. He shot another woman in the head before entering the observation deck.

Twenty minutes after he began firing on people, Whitman encountered return fire from police and other armed citizens on campus. Whitman was finally killed by an officer who entered the tower at around 1:24pm.

Aug. 1, 1966:

Engineering student and former U.S. Marine Charles Whitman kills 17 people and wounds 32 others in a shooting rampage around the Tower at the University of Texas Austin.

Prior to the shootings, Whitman had murdered his wife and mother. At 6:45am the day before, he typed out a suicide letter. He killed both his mother and wife by stabbing them through the heart on the morning of Aug. 1.

That morning, he rented a truck and bought a Universal M1 carbine, two magazines and eight boxes of ammo, saying he wanted to hunt hogs. He then bought more magazines, six boxes of ammo, and a gun cleaning solvent. He bought another gun, a 12-gauge semi-automatic shotgun, before returning home.

While at home, he sawed off the barrel of the 12-gauge, and took it, a Remington 700 6mm bolt-action hunting rifle, a .35 calibre pump rifle, a .30 calibre carbine, a 9mm Luger pistol, a Galesi-Brescia .25 calibre pistol and a Smith & Wesson M19 .357 Magnum revolver and 700 rounds of ammunition. He then changed into khaki overalls.

While at the University, Whitman knocked an employee out and then beat her to death with his rifle butt. Before he entered the observation deck, he fired his gun at a family, killing one of their sons, along with a 56-year-old woman. He shot another woman in the head before entering the observation deck.

Twenty minutes after he began firing on people, Whitman encountered return fire from police and other armed citizens on campus. Whitman was finally killed by an officer who entered the tower at around 1:24pm.

July 31, 2002:
A bomb explodes in the cafeteria at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, killing nine people. One hundred people are also injured. 
An East Jerusalem-based Hamas cell claims responsibility for the attack, which was followed by a celebration in Gaza City. 
Following the attack, Israel began to attempt to deter suicide bombings by demolishing houses belonging to their family members. It stopped the policy after Rachel Corrie’s death in 2003. 

Hebrew University became the first Israeli university to use bomb-sniffing dogs beginning in 2005. The campus’ entrances were also outfitted with metal detectors and staffed by two dozen security guards. Legally carried guns were also banned throughout the campus. 

July 31, 2002:

A bomb explodes in the cafeteria at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, killing nine people. One hundred people are also injured. 

An East Jerusalem-based Hamas cell claims responsibility for the attack, which was followed by a celebration in Gaza City. 

Following the attack, Israel began to attempt to deter suicide bombings by demolishing houses belonging to their family members. It stopped the policy after Rachel Corrie’s death in 2003. 

Hebrew University became the first Israeli university to use bomb-sniffing dogs beginning in 2005. The campus’ entrances were also outfitted with metal detectors and staffed by two dozen security guards. Legally carried guns were also banned throughout the campus. 

July 30, 1419:
A crowd of radical Hussites kill seven members of the city council in Prague in what comes to be known as the First Defenestration of Prague.
Hussite priest Jan Želivský led his congregation to the New Town Hall on Charles Square, where the town council members had refused to exchange Hussite prisoners just before the Hussite Wars. 
A stone was thrown at Želivský from the window of the town hall, enraging the mob, which, led by general and Hussite leader Jan Žižka, stormed the town hall. When they were inside, the group threw the judge, chief magistrate and 13 members of the town council out the window and onto the street below. They were either killed in the fall or were murdered by the mob when they landed.
The events happened due to frustration with the direction the Church was taking in Bohemia, along with inequality between peasants and the Church and nobility. 
Želivský, Hus and radical preachers like John Wycliffe had quite a lot of influence on the people at this time, since they believed the Church had become corrupt. They urged their congregations to take action, including taking up arms, to fight against members of the Church who were considered to be transgressing. 

July 30, 1419:

A crowd of radical Hussites kill seven members of the city council in Prague in what comes to be known as the First Defenestration of Prague.

Hussite priest Jan Želivský led his congregation to the New Town Hall on Charles Square, where the town council members had refused to exchange Hussite prisoners just before the Hussite Wars. 

A stone was thrown at Želivský from the window of the town hall, enraging the mob, which, led by general and Hussite leader Jan Žižka, stormed the town hall. When they were inside, the group threw the judge, chief magistrate and 13 members of the town council out the window and onto the street below. They were either killed in the fall or were murdered by the mob when they landed.

The events happened due to frustration with the direction the Church was taking in Bohemia, along with inequality between peasants and the Church and nobility. 

Želivský, Hus and radical preachers like John Wycliffe had quite a lot of influence on the people at this time, since they believed the Church had become corrupt. They urged their congregations to take action, including taking up arms, to fight against members of the Church who were considered to be transgressing. 

July 29, 1993:
John Demjanjuk, an alleged Nazi death camp guard, is acquitted of all charges and set free by the Supreme Court of Israel.
Demjanjuk was drafted into the Soviet Red Army during World War II, and was captured as a prisoner of war. He emigrated to the United States from Germany in 1952, and changed his name from Ivan to John in 1958. 
In 1986, he was deported to Israel to stand trial for war crimes after being mistakenly identified by Holocaust survivors as ‘Ivan the Terrible,’ a guard at the Treblinka extermination camp. He was accused of murder and committing savage acts against prisoners from 1942 to 1943. 
Demjanjuk was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to death in 1988, but the verdict was overturned by the Israeli Supreme Court based on new evidence that Ivan the Terrible was likely another man, Ivan Marchenko. 
In 2001, Demjanjuk was charged again. This time, it was alleged he served as a guard in the Sobibor and Majdanek camps in Poland and the Flossenburg camp in Germany. He became a stateless person in 2002, until he died in 2012. 
Demjanjuk’s deportation was ordered in 2005, but after a series of appeals, he remained in the U.S. in 2008, since no other country would take him based on the allegations against him. 
In 2009, he was deported to Germany to stand trial, where he was formally charged with 27,900 counts of acting as an accessory to murder - the counts were for each person who died at Sobibor while he was alleged to have been a guard there. 
In May 2011, Demjanjuk was convicted and sentenced to five years in prison. The interim conviction, which was pending appeal by a German criminal court, was later annulled because Demjanjuk died on March 17, 2012, before his appeal could be heard. 

July 29, 1993:

John Demjanjuk, an alleged Nazi death camp guard, is acquitted of all charges and set free by the Supreme Court of Israel.

Demjanjuk was drafted into the Soviet Red Army during World War II, and was captured as a prisoner of war. He emigrated to the United States from Germany in 1952, and changed his name from Ivan to John in 1958. 

In 1986, he was deported to Israel to stand trial for war crimes after being mistakenly identified by Holocaust survivors as ‘Ivan the Terrible,’ a guard at the Treblinka extermination camp. He was accused of murder and committing savage acts against prisoners from 1942 to 1943. 

Demjanjuk was convicted of crimes against humanity and sentenced to death in 1988, but the verdict was overturned by the Israeli Supreme Court based on new evidence that Ivan the Terrible was likely another man, Ivan Marchenko. 

In 2001, Demjanjuk was charged again. This time, it was alleged he served as a guard in the Sobibor and Majdanek camps in Poland and the Flossenburg camp in Germany. He became a stateless person in 2002, until he died in 2012. 

Demjanjuk’s deportation was ordered in 2005, but after a series of appeals, he remained in the U.S. in 2008, since no other country would take him based on the allegations against him. 

In 2009, he was deported to Germany to stand trial, where he was formally charged with 27,900 counts of acting as an accessory to murder - the counts were for each person who died at Sobibor while he was alleged to have been a guard there. 

In May 2011, Demjanjuk was convicted and sentenced to five years in prison. The interim conviction, which was pending appeal by a German criminal court, was later annulled because Demjanjuk died on March 17, 2012, before his appeal could be heard.